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While it may suggest population density, it does not provide density figures. This entry lists potential natural disasters. For countries where volcanic activity is common, a volcanism subfield highlights historically active volcanoes. Environment - current issues: This entry lists the most pressing and important environmental problems. The following terms and abbreviations are used throughout the entry: Acidification - the lowering of soil and water pH due to acid precipitation and deposition usually through precipitation; this process disrupts ecosystem nutrient flows and may kill freshwater fish and plants dependent on more neutral or alkaline conditions see acid rain.

Acid rain - characterized as containing harmful levels of sulfur dioxi. Environment - international agreements: This entry separates country participation in international environmental agreements into two levels - party to and signed, but not ratified. Agreements are listed in alphabetical order by the abbreviated form of the full name. This entry includes miscellaneous geographic information of significance not included elsewhere. This entry gives an estimate from the US Bureau of the Census based on statistics from population censuses, vital statistics registration systems, or sample surveys pertaining to the recent past and on assumptions about future trends.

The total population presents one overall measure of the potential impact of the country on the world and within its region. Starting with the Factbook, demographic estimates for some countries mostly African have explicitly taken into account t. This entry provides the identifying terms for citizens - noun and adjective.

This entry provides an ordered listing of ethnic groups starting with the largest and normally includes the percent of total population. This entry provides a listing of languages spoken in each country and specifies any that are official national or regional languages. When data is available, the languages spoken in each country are broken down according to the percent of the total population speaking each language as a first language.

For those countries without available data, languages are listed in rank order based on prevalence, starting with the most-spoken language. English official , Kiswahili official , Kiswahili numerous indigenous languages. This entry is an ordered listing of religions by adherents starting with the largest group and sometimes includes the percent of total population. The core characteristics and beliefs of the world's major religions are described below. Baha'i - Founded by Mirza Husayn-Ali known as Baha'u'llah in Iran in , Baha'i faith emphasizes monotheism and believes in one eternal transcendent God.

Its guiding focus is to encourage the unity of all peoples on the earth so that justice and peace m. Some of the topics addressed are population age structure, fertility, health, mortality, poverty, education, and migration. This entry provides the distribution of the population according to age. Information is included by sex and age group as follows: The age structure of a population affects a nation's key socioeconomic issues. Countries with young populations high percentage under age 15 need to invest more in schools, while countries with older population.

This is the population pyramid for Kenya. A population pyramid illustrates the age and sex structure of a country's population and may provide insights about political and social stability, as well as economic development. The population is distributed along the horizontal axis, with males shown on the left and females on the right. The male and female populations are broken down into 5-year age groups represented as horizontal bars along the vertical axis, with the youngest age groups at the bottom and the oldest at the top.

The shape of the population pyramid gradually evolves over time based on fertility, mortality, and international migration trends. For additional information, please see the entry for Population pyramid on the Definitions and Notes page under the References tab. Dependency ratios are a measure of the age structure of a population. They relate the number of individuals that are likely to be economically "dependent" on the support of others.

Changes in the dependency ratio provide an indication of potential social support requirements resulting from changes in population age structures. This entry is the age that divides a population into two numerically equal groups; that is, half the people are younger than this age and half are older. It is a single index that summarizes the age distribution of a population. Currently, the median age ranges from a low of about 15 in Niger and Uganda to 40 or more in several European countries and Japan. See the entry for "Age structure" for the importance of a young versus an older age structure and, by implication, a low versus a high.

The average annual percent change in the population, resulting from a surplus or deficit of births over deaths and the balance of migrants entering and leaving a country. The rate may be positive or negative. The growth rate is a factor in determining how great a burden would be imposed on a country by the changing needs of its people for infrastructure e. Rapid population growth can be seen as.

This entry gives the average annual number of births during a year per 1, persons in the population at midyear; also known as crude birth rate. The birth rate is usually the dominant factor in determining the rate of population growth. It depends on both the level of fertility and the age structure of the population. This entry gives the average annual number of deaths during a year per 1, population at midyear; also known as crude death rate. The death rate, while only a rough indicator of the mortality situation in a country, accurately indicates the current mortality impact on population growth.

This indicator is significantly affected by age distribution, and most countries will eventually show a rise in the overall death rate, in spite of continued decline in mortality at all ages, as declining. This entry includes the figure for the difference between the number of persons entering and leaving a country during the year per 1, persons based on midyear population. An excess of persons entering the country is referred to as net immigration e.

The net migration rate indicates the contribution of migration to the overall level of population chan. This entry provides two measures of the degree of urbanization of a population. The first, urban population, describes the percentage of the total population living in urban areas, as defined by the country. The second, rate of urbanization, describes the projected average rate of change of the size of the urban population over the given period of time.

Additionally, the World entry includes a list of the ten largest urban agglomerations. An urban agglomeration is defined as comprising th. Major urban areas - population: This entry provides the population of the capital and up to six major cities defined as urban agglomerations with populations of at least , people.

An urban agglomeration is defined as comprising the city or town proper and also the suburban fringe or thickly settled territory lying outside of, but adjacent to, the boundaries of the city. For smaller countries, lacking urban centers of , or more, only the population of the capital is presented. This entry includes the number of males for each female in five age groups - at birth, under 15 years, years, 65 years and over, and for the total population. Sex ratio at birth has recently emerged as an indicator of certain kinds of sex discrimination in some countries.

For instance, high sex ratios at birth in some Asian countries are now attributed to sex-selective abortion and infanticide due to a strong preference for sons. This will affect future marriage patterns and fertilit. Mother's mean age at first birth: This entry provides the mean average age of mothers at the birth of their first child. It is a useful indicator for gauging the success of family planning programs aiming to reduce maternal mortality, increase contraceptive use — particularly among married and unmarried adolescents — delay age at first marriage, and improve the health of newborns.

The maternal mortality rate MMR is the annual number of female deaths per , live births from any cause related to or aggravated by pregnancy or its management excluding accidental or incidental causes. The MMR includes deaths during pregnancy, childbirth, or within 42 days of termination of pregnancy, irrespective of the duration and site of the pregnancy, for a specified year.

This entry gives the number of deaths of infants under one year old in a given year per 1, live births in the same year. This rate is often used as an indicator of the level of health in a country. Life expectancy at birth: This entry contains the average number of years to be lived by a group of people born in the same year, if mortality at each age remains constant in the future.

Life expectancy at birth is also a measure of overall quality of life in a country and summarizes the mortality at all ages. It can also be thought of as indicating the potential return on investment in human capital and is necessary for the calculation of various actuarial measures. This entry gives a figure for the average number of children that would be born per woman if all women lived to the end of their childbearing years and bore children according to a given fertility rate at each age.

The total fertility rate TFR is a more direct measure of the level of fertility than the crude birth rate, since it refers to births per woman. This indicator shows the potential for population change in the country. A rate of two children per woman is considered the replaceme. This field gives the percent of women of reproductive age who are married or in union and are using, or whose sexual partner is using, a method of contraception according to the date of the most recent available data.

It is also useful in understanding, past, present, and future fertility trends, especially in developing countries. This entry provides the total expenditure on health as a percentage of GDP. This entry gives the number of medical doctors physicians , including generalist and specialist medical practitioners, per 1, of the population. Medical doctors are defined as doctors that study, diagnose, treat, and prevent illness, disease, injury, and other physical and mental impairments in humans through the application of modern medicine.

They also plan, supervise, and evaluate care and treatment plans by other health care providers. The World Health Organization estimates that f. This entry provides the number of hospital beds per 1, people; it serves as a general measure of inpatient service availability. Hospital beds include inpatient beds available in public, private, general, and specialized hospitals and rehabilitation centers. In most cases, beds for both acute and chronic care are included.

Because the level of inpatient services required for individual countries depends on several factors - such as demographic issues and the burden of disease - there is. This entry provides information about access to improved or unimproved drinking water sources available to segments of the population of a country. Improved drinking water - use of any of the following sources: Unimproved drinking water - use of any of the following sources: This entry provides information about access to improved or unimproved sanitation facilities available to segments of the population of a country.

Improved sanitation - use of any of the following facilities: Unimproved sanitation - use of any of the following facilities: This entry gives an estimate of all people adults and children alive at yearend with HIV infection, whether or not they have developed symptoms of AIDS. This entry gives an estimate of the number of adults and children who died of AIDS during a given calendar year.

This entry lists major infectious diseases likely to be encountered in countries where the risk of such diseases is assessed to be very high as compared to the United States. These infectious diseases represent risks to US government personnel traveling to the specified country for a period of less than three years. The degree of risk is assessed by considering the foreign nature of these infectious diseases, their severity, and the probability of being affected by the diseases present. Obesity - adult prevalence rate: This entry gives the percent of a country's population considered to be obese.

BMI is calculated by taking a person's weight in kg and dividing it by the person's squared height in meters. Children under the age of 5 years underweight: This entry gives the percent of children under five considered to be underweight. Underweight means weight-for-age is approximately 2 kg below for standard at age one, 3 kg below standard for ages two and three, and 4 kg below standard for ages four and five.

This statistic is an indicator of the nutritional status of a community. This entry provides the public expenditure on education as a percent of GDP. This entry includes a definition of literacy and Census Bureau percentages for the total population, males, and females. There are no universal definitions and standards of literacy. Unless otherwise specified, all rates are based on the most common definition - the ability to read and write at a specified age. Detailing the standards that individual countries use to assess the ability to read and write is beyond the scope of the Factbook.

Information on literacy, while not a perfect measu. School life expectancy primary to tertiary education: School life expectancy SLE is the total number of years of schooling primary to tertiary that a child can expect to receive, assuming that the probability of his or her being enrolled in school at any particular future age is equal to the current enrollment ratio at that age. Caution must be maintained when utilizing this indicator in international comparisons. For example, a year or grade completed in one country is not necessarily the same in terms of educational content or qualit.

This entry includes all forms of the country's name approved by the US Board on Geographic Names Italy is used as an example: Also see the Terminology note. This entry gives the basic form of government. Definitions of the major governmental terms are as follows. Note that for some countries more than one definition applies. Absolute monarchy - a form of government where the monarch rules unhindered, i. Anarchy - a condition of lawlessness or political disorder brought about by the absence of governmental authority.

Authoritarian - a form of government in whic. This entry gives the name of the seat of government, its geographic coordinates, the time difference relative to Coordinated Universal Time UTC and the time observed in Washington, DC, and, if applicable, information on daylight saving time DST. Where appropriate, a special note has been added to highlight those countries that have multiple time zones. This entry generally gives the numbers, designatory terms, and first-order administrative divisions as approved by the US Board on Geographic Names BGN.

Changes that have been reported but not yet acted on by the BGN are noted. Geographic names conform to spellings approved by the BGN with the exception of the omission of diacritical marks and special characters. For most countries, this entry gives the date that sovereignty was achieved and from which nation, empire, or trusteeship.

For the other countries, the date given may not represent "independence" in the strict sense, but rather some significant nationhood event such as the traditional founding date or the date of unification, federation, confederation, establishment, fundamental change in the form of government, or state succession.

For a number of countries, the establishment of statehood. This entry gives the primary national day of celebration - usually independence day. The history subfield includes the dates of previous constitutions and the main steps and dates in formulating and implementing the latest constitution. This entry provides the description of a country's legal system. A statement on judicial review of legislative acts is also included for a number of countries.

The legal systems of nearly all countries are generally modeled upon elements of five main types: International law organization participation: This entry provides information related to the acquisition and exercise of citizenship; it includes four subfields: This entry gives the age at enfranchisement and whether the right to vote is universal or restricted. The highest court s subfield includes the name s of a country's highest level court s , the number and titles of the judges, and the types of cases heard by the court, which commonly are based on civil, criminal, administrative, and constitutional law.

A number of countries have separate constitutional courts. The judge selection and term of office subfield includes the organizations and associated officials responsible for nominating and appointing j. Supreme Court consists of chief and deputy chief justices and 5 judges. High Court; Court of Appeal; military courts; magistrates' courts; religious courts.

This entry includes five subentries: Chief of state includes the name, title, and beginning date in office of the titular leader of the country who represents the state at official and ceremonial functions but may not be involved with the day-to-day activities of the government. Head of government includes the name, title of the top executive designated to manage the executive branch of the government, a.

Cabinet appointed by the president, subject to confirmation by the National Assembly. This entry has three subfields. The description subfield provides the legislative structure unicameral — single house; bicameral — an upper and a lower house ; formal name s ; number of member seats; types of constituencies or voting districts single seat, multi-seat, nationwide ; electoral voting system s ; and member term of office.

The elections subfield includes the dates of the last election and next election. Senate 67 seats; 47 members directly elected in single-seat constituencies by simple majority vote and 20 directly elected by proportional representation vote - 16 women, 2 representing youth, and 2 representing the disabled; members serve 5-year terms National Assembly seats; members directly elected in single-seat constituencies by simple majority vote, 47 women in single-seat constituencies elected by simple majority vote, and 12 members nominated by the National Assembly - 6 representing youth and 6 representing the disabled; members serve 5-year terms.

Senate - last held on 8 August next to be held in August National Assembly - last held on 8 August next to be held in August Political parties and leaders: This entry includes a listing of significant political parties, coalitions, and electoral lists as of each country's last legislative election, unless otherwise noted.

This entry lists in alphabetical order by abbreviation those international organizations in which the subject country is a member or participates in some other way. Diplomatic representation in the US: This entry includes the chief of mission, chancery address, telephone, FAX, consulate general locations, and consulate locations. Such ambassadors fulfill all diplomatic functions except meeting with or appearing at functions attended by the president until such time as they formally present their credentials at a White Hou.

Diplomatic representation from the US: This entry includes the chief of mission, embassy address, mailing address, telephone number, FAX number, branch office locations, consulate general locations, and consulate locations. United Nations Avenue, Nairobi; P. Box Village Market, Nairobi American Embassy Nairobi, U.

Department of State, Washington, DC This entry provides a written flag description produced from actual flags or the best information available at the time the entry was written. The flags of independent states are used by their dependencies unless there is an officially recognized local flag. Some disputed and other areas do not have flags. A national symbol is a faunal, floral, or other abstract representation - or some distinctive object - that over time has come to be closely identified with a country or entity.

Not all countries have national symbols; a few countries have more than one. A generally patriotic musical composition - usually in the form of a song or hymn of praise - that evokes and eulogizes the history, traditions, or struggles of a nation or its people. National anthems can be officially recognized as a national song by a country's constitution or by an enacted law, or simply by tradition.

Although most anthems contain lyrics, some do not. This entry briefly describes the type of economy, including the degree of market orientation, the level of economic development, the most important natural resources, and the unique areas of specialization. It also characterizes major economic events and policy changes in the most recent 12 months and may include a statement about one or two key future macroeconomic trends. GDP purchasing power parity: This entry gives the gross domestic product GDP or value of all final goods and services produced within a nation in a given year.

A nation's GDP at purchasing power parity PPP exchange rates is the sum value of all goods and services produced in the country valued at prices prevailing in the United States in the year noted. This is the measure most economists prefer when looking at per-capita welfare and when comparing living conditions or use of resources across countries. GDP official exchange rate: The measure is simple to compute and gives a precise measure of the value of output.

Many economists prefer this measure when gauging the economic power an economy maintains vis-. GDP - real growth rate: This entry gives GDP growth on an annual basis adjusted for inflation and expressed as a percent. The growth rates are year-over-year, and not compounded. This entry shows GDP on a purchasing power parity basis divided by population as of 1 July for the same year.

Gross national saving is derived by deducting final consumption expenditure household plus government from Gross national disposable income, and consists of personal saving, plus business saving the sum of the capital consumption allowance and retained business profits , plus government saving the excess of tax revenues over expenditures , but excludes foreign saving the excess of imports of goods and services over exports.

The figures are presented as a percent of GDP. GDP - composition, by end use: This entry shows who does the spending in an economy: The distribution gives the percentage contribution to total GDP of household consumption, government consumption, investment in fixed capital, investment in inventories, exports of goods and services, and imports of goods and services, and will total percent of GDP if the data are complete. GDP - composition, by sector of origin: This entry shows where production takes place in an economy.

The distribution gives the percentage contribution of agriculture, industry, and services to total GDP, and will total percent of GDP if the data are complete. Agriculture includes farming, fishing, and forestry. Industry includes mining, manufacturing, energy production, and construction. Services cover government activities, communications, transportation, finance, and all other private economic activities that do not prod.

This entry is an ordered listing of major crops and products starting with the most important. This entry provides a rank ordering of industries starting with the largest by value of annual output. Industrial production growth rate: This entry gives the annual percentage increase in industrial production includes manufacturing, mining, and construction. This entry contains the total labor force figure.

Labor force - by occupation: This entry lists the percentage distribution of the labor force by sector of occupation. Services cover government activities, communications, transportation, finance, and all other economic activities that do not produce material goods. The distribution will total less than percent if the data are incomplete and may range from percent due to rounding.

This entry contains the percent of the labor force that is without jobs. Substantial underemployment might be noted. Population below poverty line: National estimates of the percentage of the population falling below the poverty line are based on surveys of sub-groups, with the results weighted by the number of people in each group. Definitions of poverty vary considerably among nations. For example, rich nations generally employ more generous standards of poverty than poor nations. Household income or consumption by percentage share: Data on household income or consumption come from household surveys, the results adjusted for household size.

Nations use different standards and procedures in collecting and adjusting the data. Surveys based on income will normally show a more unequal distribution than surveys based on consumption. The quality of surveys is improving with time, yet caution is still necessary in making inter-country comparisons. Distribution of family income - Gini index: This index measures the degree of inequality in the distribution of family income in a country. The index is calculated from the Lorenz curve, in which cumulative family income is plotted against the number of families arranged from the poorest to the richest.

The index is the ratio of a the area between a country's Lorenz curve and the 45 degree helping line to b the entire triangular area under the 45 degree line. The more nearly equal a country's income distribution, the closer its. This entry includes revenues, expenditures, and capital expenditures. These figures are calculated on an exchange rate basis, i. Taxes and other revenues: This entry records total taxes and other revenues received by the national government during the time period indicated, expressed as a percent of GDP.

Taxes include personal and corporate income taxes, value added taxes, excise taxes, and tariffs. Other revenues include social contributions - such as payments for social security and hospital insurance - grants, and net revenues from public enterprises. Normalizing the data, by dividing total revenues by GDP, enables easy comparisons acr. This entry records the difference between national government revenues and expenditures, expressed as a percent of GDP.

Normalizing the data, by dividing the budget balance by GDP, enables easy comparisons across countries and indicates whether a national government saves or borrows money. Kenya has proven deposits of oil in Turkana and the commercial viability was just discovered. Tullow Oil estimates Kenya's oil reserves to be around 10 billion barrels. Kenya currently imports all crude petroleum requirements.

Kenya, east Africa's largest economy, has no strategic reserves and relies solely on oil marketers' day oil reserves required under industry regulations. Kenyatta was "[a]ccompanied by 60 Kenyan business people [and hoped to] Base Titanium, a subsidiary of Base resources of Australia, shipped its first major consignment of minerals to China. About 25, tonnes of ilmenite was flagged off the Kenyan coastal town of Kilifi. The first shipment was expected to earn Kenya about Kshs15—20 billion in earnings. In , the Kenyan government unveiled Vision , an economic development programme it hopes will put the country in the same league as the Asian Economic Tigers by the year In , it launched a National Climate Change Action Plan, having acknowledged that omitting climate as a key development issue in Vision was an oversight.

At the launch in March , the Secretary of the Ministry of Planning, National Development and Vision emphasised that climate would be a central issue in the renewed Medium Term Plan that would be launched in the coming months. This would create a direct and robust delivery framework for the Action Plan and ensure climate change is treated as an economy-wide issue. Kenya has proven oil deposits in Turkana County. President Mwai Kibaki announced on 26 March that Tullow Oil , an Anglo-Irish oil exploration firm, had struck oil but its commercial viability and subsequent production would take about three years to confirm.

Early in Chinese president Hu Jintao signed an oil exploration contract with Kenya, part of a series of deals designed to keep Africa's natural resources flowing to China's rapidly expanding economy. The deal allowed for China's state-controlled offshore oil and gas company, CNOOC , to prospect for oil in Kenya, which is just beginning to drill its first exploratory wells on the borders of Sudan and the disputed area of North Eastern Province of the border with Somalia and in coastal waters.

There are formal estimates of the possible reserves of oil discovered. Child labour is common in Kenya. Most working children are active in agriculture. Most of the prostitutes in Kenya are aged 9— Out of approximately 40 million Kenyans , about 14 million Kenyans are not able to receive financial service through formal loan application service and an additional 12 million Kenyans have no access to financial service institutions at all. Further, 1 million Kenyans are reliant on informal groups for receiving financial aid.

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Kenya had a population of approximately 48 million people in January Kenya's capital, Nairobi, is home to Kibera , one of the world's largest slums. The shanty town is believed to house between , [] and 1 million locals. Kenya has a diverse population that includes most major ethnoracial and linguistic groups found in Africa. The largest native ethnic groups are the Kikuyu 6,, , Luhya 5,, , Kalenjin 4,, , Luo 4,, , Kamba 3,, , Somalis 3,, , Kisii 2,, , Mijikenda 1,, , Meru 1,, , Turkana , , and Maasai , Kenya's various ethnic groups typically speak their mother tongues within their own communities.

The two official languages , English and Swahili , are used in varying degrees of fluency for communication with other populations. English is widely spoken in commerce, schooling and government. British English is primarily used in Kenya. Additionally, a distinct local dialect, Kenyan English , is used by some communities and individuals in the country, and contains features unique to it that were derived from local Bantu languages , such as Kiswahili and Kikuyu. Sheng is a Kiswahili-based cant spoken in some urban areas. Primarily consisting of a mixture of Kiswahili and English, it is an example of linguistic code-switching.

There are a total of 69 languages spoken in Kenya. Most belong to two broad language families: The Cushitic and Arab ethnic minorities speak languages belonging to the separate Afroasiatic family, with the Indian and European residents speaking languages from the Indo-European family.

Orthodox Christianity counts , adherents. Nonreligious Kenyans make up 2.

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Kenya has one of Africa's largest Hindu populations around , , mostly of Indian origin. There is also a small Buddhist community. Kenya's private sector is one of the most advanced and dynamic in Sub-Saharan Africa. Private healthcare businesses and companies are the main health care providers in the country even for the nation's poorest people.

The private health sector is larger and more easily accessible than both the public and the non-profit health sectors in terms of facilities and personnel. According to a World Bank report, nearly half of the poorest 20 percent of Kenyans use a private health facility when a child is sick.

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Private health facilities are largely preferred for their strong brands, value-addition and focused patient-centered care in contrast to the minimalist evidence-based care provided in public health facilities. Private health facilities are diverse and cater for all economic groups.

Hospitals such as the Aga Khan Hospital and the Mombasa Hospital are comparable to many preferred hospitals in the developed world but are expensive and accessible only to the rich and the insured. Many affordable and low-cost private medical institutions and clinics exist and are easily accessible to ordinary and middle-class residents but are commonly unregistered and unlicensed and run by similarly unregistered and unlicensed personnel posing a grave danger to the public. All registered medical facilities are subjected to regular supervisory and supportive visits from a joint multi-cadre team of health officials from the county government and national regulatory bodies in order to meet the legal threshold of the Fair Administrative Action Act, and may choose to undergo additional supportive and quality assurance and improvement processes by operating under a social franchise such as the joint government-donor funded Tunza Family Network.

The control of medical practice by laymen through limited liability companies, county governments and other artificial legal entities is widespread and largely tolerated unlike other countries where medical affairs are strictly handled by medically qualified administrators. The health sector and health facilities are not protected by any special laws and are prone to mismanagement with health workers frequently being subjected to verbal, emotional and physical attacks by patients and administrators alike.

The public health sector consists of community-based level I services which are run by community health workers, dispensaries level II facilities which are run by nurses, health centers level III facilities which are run by clinical officers, sub-county hospitals level IV facilities which may be run by a clinical officer or a medical officer, county hospitals level V facilities which may be run by a medical officer or a medical practitioner, and national referral hospitals level VI facilities which are run by fully qualified medical practitioners consultants and sub-specialists.

Nurses are by far the largest group of front-line health care providers in all sectors followed by clinical officers , medical officers and medical practitioners. According to the Kenya National Bureau of Statistics , in there were 65, qualified nurses registered in the country; 8, clinical officers and 7, doctors for the population of 43 million people These figures from official registers include those who have died or left the profession hence the actual number of these workers may be lower.

Traditional healers Herbalists , witch doctors and faith healers are readily available, trusted and widely consulted as practitioners of first or last choice by both rural and urban dwellers. Despite major achievements in the health sector, Kenya still faces many challenges. The life expectancy estimate has dropped to approximately 55 years in —five years below levels. Diseases of poverty directly correlate with a country's economic performance and wealth distribution: Half of Kenyans live below the poverty level.

According to estimates, HIV prevalence is about 6. The total fertility rate in Kenya is estimated to be 4. By colonial land alienation, women lost access and control of land. Children attend nursery school, or kindergarten in the private sector until they are five years old.

This lasts one to three years KG1, KG2 and KG3 and is financed privately because there has been no government policy regarding it until recently. Basic formal education starts at age six years and lasts 12 years consisting of eight years in primary school and four years in high school or secondary school.

Those who complete high school can join a polytechnic or other technical college and study for three years, or proceed directly to the university and study for four years. Graduates from the polytechnics and colleges can then join the workforce and later obtain a specialized higher diploma qualification after a further one to two years of training, or join the university—usually in the second or third year of their respective course.

The higher diploma is accepted by many employers in place of a bachelor's degree and direct or accelerated admission to post-graduate studies is possible in some universities. Public universities in Kenya are highly commercialized institutions and only a small fraction of qualified high school graduates are admitted on limited government-sponsorship into programs of their choice. Most are admitted into the social sciences, which are cheap to run, or as self-sponsored students paying the full cost of their studies.

Most qualified students who miss out opt for middle-level diploma programs in public or private universities, colleges, and polytechnics. Preschool, which targets children from age three to five, is an integral component of the education system and is a key requirement for admission to Standard One First Grade. At the end of primary education, pupils sit the Kenya Certificate of Primary Education KCPE , which determines those who proceed to secondary school or vocational training.

The result of this examination is needed for placement at secondary school. Students sit examinations in eight subjects of their choosing. However, English, Kiswahili and mathematics are compulsory subjects. Other than the public schools, there are many private schools, mainly in urban areas. Similarly, there are a number of international schools catering to various overseas educational systems. Despite its impressive commercial approach and interests in the country, Kenya's academia and higher education system is notoriously rigid and disconnected from the needs of the local labour market and is widely blamed for the high number of unemployable and "half-baked" university graduates who struggle to fit in the modern workplace.

The culture of Kenya consists of multiple traditions. Kenya has no single prominent culture that identifies it. It instead consists of the various cultures of the country's different communities. Notable populations include the Swahili on the coast, several other Bantu communities in the central and western regions, and Nilotic communities in the northwest.

The Maasai culture is well known to tourism, despite constituting a relatively small part of Kenya's population. They are renowned for their elaborate upper body adornment and jewellery. Kenya has a number of media outlets that broadcast domestically and globally. They cover news, business, sports and entertainment. Popular Kenyan newspapers include:. The story details the effects of the Mau Mau on the lives of Kenyans. Its combination of themes— colonialism , education, and love—helped to make it one of the best-known novels in Africa.

It is the fictional memoir of a Kenyan of Indian heritage and his family as they adjust to the changing political climates in colonial and post-colonial Kenya. Since , the literary journal Kwani? Additionally, Kenya has also been nurturing emerging versatile authors such as Paul Kipchumba Kipwendui, Kibiwott who demonstrate pan-African outlook see Africa in China's 21st Century: In Search of a Strategy Kenya has a diverse assortment of popular music forms, in addition to multiple types of folk music based on the variety over 40 regional languages.

The drums are the most dominant instrument in popular Kenyan music. Drum beats are very complex and include both native rhythm and imported ones, especially the Congolese cavacha rhythm. Popular Kenyan music usually involves the interplay of multiple parts, and more recently, showy guitar solos as well. There are also a number of local hip-hop artists, including Jua Cali and afro-pop bands such as Sauti Sol.

Lyrics are most often in Kiswahili or English. There is also some emerging aspect of Lingala borrowed from Congolese musicians. Lyrics are also written in local languages. Urban radio generally only plays English music, though there also exist a number of vernacular radio stations. Zilizopendwa is a genre of local urban music that was recorded in the s, 70s and 80s by musicians such as Daudi Kabaka , Fadhili William and Sukuma Bin Ongaro , and is particularly revered and enjoyed by older people—having been popularised by the Kenya Broadcasting Corporation's Kiswahili service formerly called Voice of Kenya or VOK.

The isukuti is a vigorous dance performed by the Luhya sub-tribes to the beat of a traditional drum called the Isukuti during many occasions such as the birth of a child, marriage and funerals. Additionally, Kenya has a growing Christian gospel music scene. Prominent local gospel musicians include the Kenyan Boys Choir. Benga music has been popular since the late s, especially in the area around Lake Victoria.

The word benga is occasionally used to refer to any kind of pop music. Bass, guitar and percussion are the usual instruments. Kenya is active in several sports, among them cricket , rallying , football , rugby union and boxing. Kenyan athletes particularly Kalenjin continue to dominate the world of distance running, although competition from Morocco and Ethiopia has reduced this supremacy.

Kenya's best-known athletes included the four-time women's Boston Marathon winner and two-time world champion Catherine Ndereba , m world record holder David Rudisha , former Marathon world record-holder Paul Tergat , and John Ngugi. Kenya won several medals during the Beijing Olympics, six gold, four silver and four bronze, making it Africa's most successful nation in the Olympics.

Retired Olympic and Commonwealth Games champion Kipchoge Keino helped usher in Kenya's ongoing distance dynasty in the s and was followed by Commonwealth Champion Henry Rono 's spectacular string of world record performances. Lately, there has been controversy in Kenyan athletics circles, with the defection of a number of Kenyan athletes to represent other countries, chiefly Bahrain and Qatar.

Kenya has been a dominant force in women's volleyball within Africa, with both the clubs and the national team winning various continental championships in the past decade. Cricket is another popular sport, also ranking as the most successful team sport. Kenya has competed in the Cricket World Cup since They upset some of the world's best teams and reached the semi-finals of the tournament. Their current captain is Rakep Patel. Kenya is represented by Lucas Onyango as a professional rugby league player who plays with the English club Oldham. However, its dominance has been eroded by wrangles within the now defunct Kenya Football Federation , [] leading to a suspension by FIFA which was lifted in March In the motor rallying arena, Kenya is home to the world-famous Safari Rally , commonly acknowledged as one of the toughest rallies in the world.

Although the rally still runs annually as part of the Africa rally championship, the organisers are hoping to be allowed to rejoin the World Rally championship in the next couple of years. Nairobi has hosted several major continental sports events, including the FIBA Africa Championship where Kenya's national basketball team finished in the top four, its best performance to date.

Kenyans generally have three meals in a day—breakfast in the morning kiamsha kinywa , lunch in the afternoon chakula cha mchana and supper in the evening chakula cha jioni or known simply as "chajio". Breakfast is usually tea or porridge with bread, chapati , mahamri , boiled sweet potatoes or yams. Githeri is a common lunch time dish in many households while Ugali with vegetables, sour milk Mursik , meat, fish or any other stew is generally eaten by much of the population for lunch or supper. Regional variations and dishes also exist. From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia. This article needs to be updated.

Please update this article to reflect recent events or newly available information. For other uses, see Kenya disambiguation. Jamhuri ya Kenya Swahili. Swahili culture and Sultanate of Zanzibar. This section does not cite any sources.

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